made it very clear thatChiang Kai-shek was fully in control of the Nationalist army, and that any detente would be impossible without Chiang’s cooperation. Further complicating the issue was the fact that Chiang considered the Communists the greater threat to him, as opposed to the Japanese, whom he considered a minor annoyance.
As the year went on, Chiang became frustrated and then suspicious of the Young Marshal’s lack of progress against the Communist forces, so much so thatZhang staged mock battles and engagements with the Communists as a cover. In October of1936 Chiang Kai-shek announced that he would step up his”suppression campaign” against the Communists. At nearly the same time, the Japanese army invaded and was repulsed in the Suiyuan Campaign, giving many inChina the hope that Japan could be successfully resisted.
In December Chiang Kai-shek flew to Xi’an to test the loyalty of the Kuomintang(KMT) forces under Zhang, and to personally lead an attack on nearby Communist forces. Zhang Xueliang and another General, Yang Hucheng, tried desperately to convince Chiang to join forces with the Communist army to resist the Japanese. When they were unable to elicit a compromise, they took matters into their own hands, and on December12,1936, Zhang and his forces stormed Chiang’s headquarters and arrested Chiang, triggering the Xi’an Incident.
The Xi’an Incident was reported at the time as a treasonous coup by Zhang, but it is fairer to describe it as a”forced negotiation process.” Chiang Kai-shek was kept under house arrest for nearly two weeks, during which time Zhang and Yang asked the Communists to send a delegation to Xi’an to discuss the fate of China. For much of the time Chiang resisted negotiations, until it became clear that his life and freedom depended upon it.
On December17, the CPC delegation, including Zhou Enlai, arrived, but negotiations with Chiang were not fruitful. On December22, Madame Chiang Kai-shek and her brother T.V. Soong arrived to continue negotiations, and on December24, an informa丨 agreement was reached(though Chiang Kai- shek never officially signed any peace documents). Hostilities between the two sides, however, immediately ceased, allowing for a successful resistance to Japan.
After Chiang’s release, Zhang Xueliang was arrested, tried in a military court, and sentenced to10 years for his part in the incident, though he wound up spending nearly the rest of his life(until1989) under house arrest. In the immediate aftermath of the Xi’an Incident, Zhang asked HylandLyon to act as bodyguard to his wife, Edith Chao, and young son, Bobby. For the next5 years, while Zhang was in prison in Shanghai, Lyon piloted the family about, took care of many important domestic transactions and accompanied them on their travels. He finally left China in1941, returning to Los Angeles with6 steamer trunks full of his personal collection of photography and documents, in addition to a small lockbox of documents.
THE YOUNG MARSHALS FAREWELL MESSAGES, WRITTEN ON THE PLANE RIDE BETWEEN XI’AN AND NANJING. After the release of Chiang Kai-shek on December25, Zhang Xueliang chose to return to the capital with the Generalissimo. Once there, Chiang had Zhang arrested and tried in a military tribunal, where he was convicted and sentenced to ten years(but Wound up spending most of the rest of his life in confinement).
丁his document, a series of messages to the people of China, his family and friends, reveals Zhang’s intention to kill himself rather than be subjected to the unknown humiliation that awaited him.
From the first part, translated:”I sincerely have faith in the salvation of the country; however my conduct has been anti-national. Having vowed to be a faithful and trustworthy man, I never expected to let this happen. The most heartbreaking thing is seeing the Japanese find pleasure in their oppression over the Chinese. Rather than witness the fall of our country,
I will take my own life. Hopefully this will end some problems. I wish the leaders of our country to be morally conscious with an awareness of their actions. I have repeatedly expressed my thoughts to Mr. Chiang who possesses extraordinary intelligence. If Mr. Chiang would reconsider my opinions, I would greatly appreciate it
To his family, Zhang writes:”I your brother(father) was straight forwardly reckless. I worked for the salvation of our country, however had no good solutions. The Northwest incident was never planned. Therefore, I came to the capital alone hoping to end the problems. My intention was to save the country from Japanese imperialism and had never expected to let things turn out like this. I do not want to stay alive dfid let other problems arise because of me. Even though I may not have directly caused their death, I am indirectly responsible. I take total responsibility for all the problems. For our country and our families, all the Zhang descendants will swear to take revenge against Japan and will not forget this in the future.” The rest of the document, addressed to T.V. Soong, Jimmy Elder, General Tan Enbo, and two others, gives detailed instructions regarding the dispensation of Zhang’s vast estate.
A large collection of photographs, correspondence, and memorabilia, much of it relating to Lyon’s years in China,1934-1941, but also including early and late material, as follows:
Album of Lyon’s early years, with photographs of him as an infant, child and young man, along with early letters to his grandmother.
Album of Lyon’s Hollywood years,1925-1934, including film stills and images of him as an auto mechanic, actor, stunt man, and pilot.
LYON’S CORRESPONDENCE FROM CHINA:89 letters(Autograph Letters Signed and Letters Signed), approximately250 pp,4to and8vo, various places in China and the Pacific, September14,1934 to July21,1940, on various letterheads including the CNAC, Nan-Hu Airfield, and several ocean liners, most to his grandmother but a few other correspondents, being a dear, detailed first-hand narrative of his years in China in the service of the CNAC, the Young Marshal, and others.
A large collection of documents and photographs relating to CNAC, the aviation ground school at Nan-Hu Airfield, and his work post-Xi’an Incident with the Young Marshal’s family. Includes correspondence and a large series of telegrams sent back and forth between Lyon, Julius Barr, James Elder, and other influential figures.
4 small metal luggage tags stamped”Marshal Chang Hsiao Liang” and individually numbered(26,129,172,300).
11 Autograph Letters and Notes Signed by Edith Chao, to Mr. Lyon, along with several canceled checks also signed by her, and together with a checkbook bearing an inscription identifying it as the Young Marshal’s.
A collection of early photos relating to Lyon’s childhood and film career. Approximately20 Autograph Letters Signed of Dee St. Claire, the showgirl Lyon followed to China, c.1935; together with a signed photograph of St. Claire.
A small accordion file with printed cards, many annotated, of Lyon’s China contacts.
Typed transcriptions of Lyon’s letters, likely by his grandmother Jane Hunter, housed in blue3-ring binder.
A collection of Lyon’s auto and pilot’s licenses from China, etc.
A large piece of shrapnel removed from Lyon’s body,1930s.
A small address book and journal, dated March-July1937, describing an illness and hospital stay, plus his movements about Hangkow with Elder and Julius Barr.
Original correspondence from Jane C. Hunter, Lyon’s grandmother,
1930s-1950s, covering his years in China. Over200 letters containing much news of family and life in US, commentary on Bud’s letters home. Trunk1
213-ring binders featuring Lyon’s typed narrative illustrated with photographs and clippings, titled”China in the Raw” and covering the years1935-1941, quoting heavily from his own writings as well as news sources.
Approximately4000 frames of35 mm film negatives housed in9 red leatherette albums and consecutively numbered: images of Lyon’s years in China.
3 red leatherette albums, oblong8vo, each with mounted gelatin silver prints of Lyon’s images, various sizes(2×3 inches to5 x7 inches), including images of city and country life in China in the1930s, the various CNAC airplanes Lyon worked on, Chinese in formation, and atrocities committed by Japanese troops, among others.
A large collection(exceeding2000) of loose silver gelatin prints of Lyon’s photos of China, most4x5 inches, many with his photographer’s stamp, some identified in pencil. Views of people, places, and events in China,1935-1941.
Lyon’s personal papers from his later years, including documentation relating to patent efforts and machine shop business, personal correspondence and photographs. Together with a large collection of clippings and newspapers from his years in China.
Other items include: Lyon’s CNAC pilot’s blazer,3 lithographed CNAC posters from the period, and a set of embroidered CNAC”wings”; a collection of travel labels from passenger liners and hotels throughout the far east; a collection of stamps of the period; a calligraphic wall hanging; and a canister of film featuring an early newsreel biography of the Young Marshal.
责任编辑： 李广松 来源：纵览中国 转载请注明作者、出处並保持完整。